March 22-26, 2009
J. Marwan, Organizer, Presiding
—80. Physical model and direct experimental observation of water
memory and biophysical activity of magnetic-activated water. V. Vysotskii,
1:25 —81. Kinetics in a unique sodium borohydride regenerative fuel cell. G. H. Miley, N. Luo, X. Yang, K -J. Kim, G. Kopec
1:50 —82. Catching CO2 in a bowl. J. A. Tossell
2:15 —83. Photoelectrochemical characterization of semiconductor materials for solar water splitting. T. G. Deutsch, J. A. Turner
Physical model and direct experimental observation of water memory and biophysical activity of magnetic-activated water
Vladimir Vysotskii, Radiophysical Department, Kiev National Shevchenko University, Vladimirskaya Str. 64, 01033, Kiev, Ukraine, and Alla Kornilova, Moscow State University
The experimental results on studying the water memory and to investigate biophysical and biochemical characteristics of water, activated by a nonionized low frequency magnetic field (MRET water), are presented. This low frequency magnetic field enhanced distinctive modifications of basic physical-molecular properties of distilled water: decrease of viscosity of activated water by 100 or more times in comparison with the same, but nonactivated distilled water; change of electrical conductivity of activated water by 10 or more times with respect to the spectral range of low frequencies; and steep increasing and time-dependent oscillations of pH exponent during several weeks etc. It was discovered that these abnormal characteristics that occurred with activated water lasted for several hours, days or weeks at low temperature. We have estimated the parameters of water memory on the basis of the model provided by the water clathrate nano-cells and the results obtained are close to the experimental data. A theoretical biophysical model is presented to discuss this issue.
Kinetics in a unique sodium borohydride regenerative fuel cell
George H. Miley, firstname.lastname@example.org, Nie Luo, email@example.com, Xiaoling Yang, firstname.lastname@example.org, Kyu-Jung Kim, email@example.com, and Grant Kopec, firstname.lastname@example.org, Department of Nuclear, Plasma and Radiological Engineering, University of Illinois at Champaign-Urbana, 100 NEL, 103 S. Goodwin Ave, Urbana, IL 61801, Fax: 217-333-2906
A unitized direct sodium borohydride regenerative battery-type fuel cell is being developed to compete with other advanced regenerative fuel cells and chemical batteries. In its discharged state, this cell contains an aqueous solution of sodium metaborate in both the anode and cathode sides. During recharge, the cell is designed to electrochemically produce sodium borohydride in the anode and hydrogen peroxide in the cathode. The work described here is focused on cell kinetics based on measurements of the species produced during recharge. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and other supporting measurements are employed. Results confirm that sodium borohydride is electrochemically regenerated in aqueous solution via a one-step process from a solution of sodium metaborate at the anode. It is shown that an optimal pH of order 12-13 balances the stability of any sodium borohydride produced during recharge with the oxidizing species necessary for sodium borohydride oxidation during discharge.
Catching CO2 in a bowl
John A. Tossell, email@example.com, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, Fax: 301-314-9121
Increased concentrations of CO2 in the atmosphere aggravate global climate change. Methods are needed for directly removing CO2 from the atmosphere, i.e., we need CO2 absorbers. CO2 dissolves in DMSO solution to produce HCO3- and/or CO3-2 anion. A macrocyclic amidourea recently synthesized by Brooks, et al., reacts with CO2 from the atmosphere in DMSO to form a complex in which a CO3 group is held by a number of O—H-N H-bonds within a bowl-shaped cavity. We have calculated the structure, stability and vibrational spectra of this complex, using density functional techniques and polarized double zeta basis sets. Both basis set superposition effects and polarizable continuum effects on the complex geometry and stability have been evaluated. We correctly predict that this CO3-2 complex (and its HCO3- analog) are significantly more stable than the analog complex with Cl-.
Photoelectrochemical characterization of semiconductor materials for solar water splitting
Todd G. Deutsch, Todd_Deutsch@nrel.gov and John A. Turner, John_Turner@nrel.gov, Hydrogen Technologies & Systems Center, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 1617 Cole Blvd., Golden, CO 80401
Visible light has sufficient energy to split water, but since water can not directly absorb this radiation, a semiconductor must be used to allow photoelectrolysis. The utilization of solar energy for water splitting requires a semiconductor that satisfies several well-defined criteria. Any potentially promising material must be evaluated to determine if the charge carriers (electrons and holes) are injected in to the solution at the appropriate potentials to allow simultaneous reduction and oxidation of water. Then the material absorption efficiency and operational stability must be evaluated to gauge material viability. No known material satisfies all of the requirements necessary for efficient, unbiased water splitting. This paper will summarize our recent findings on a variety of nitride, carbide, and transition metal chalcogenide semiconductor characterizations.